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備用容量之說明

凯发体育app109.11.05gengxin

「備用容量」與「備轉容量」並不同,「備轉容量」之說明請參見:資訊揭露 > 電力供需資訊 > 今日電力資訊 > 今日備轉容量率

 

備用容量

yonglaiyingfujizudaxiu、xiaoxiu、guzhang、jianzai、jizulaohua、shuilibiandong、fuzaiyucebiandongjigongchengjihuayandangdengdianligongxubianhua,shiyongwudianyuankaifaguihuazhiyong。

備用容量率

shihengliangdianlixitongfadianduangongdiankekaoduzhizhibiao。

凯发体育app公司每年均有計算一「備用容量率」

定義

1.備用容量(Reserve Margin)

系統在各發電機組正常發電情況下,可提供之最大發電容量(即系統規劃淨尖峰能力),與每年之「最高小時用電量」(即系統尖峰負載)之差額,可用來衡量每年之供電充裕度,其計算公式為:
備用容量= 系統規劃淨尖峰能力-系統尖峰負載

2.備用容量率(Percent Reserve Margin)

為每年備用容量占每年尖峰負載之百分比,備用容量率愈大,系統供電愈可靠,但投資愈大,供電成本也愈高;反之,則可靠度下降,甚至限電。因此,一個合理備用用容量率除須維持一定供電可靠度標準外,供電成本也要考慮,其計算公式為
凯发体育app 備用容量率= 備用容量÷系統尖峰負載 ×100%

3.系統規劃淨尖峰能力)

xitongguihuajingjianfengnengli=(huolifadian*1+henengfadian+chouxushuili*2+zaishengnengyuan*3+qidiangongsheng(mei、you、qi)*4+henengdianchangquanheiqidongqiwolunji*5)zhijingjianfengnengli

備註
*1: 火力發電包含燃煤、燃氣及燃油等。
*2: 抽蓄水力屬於儲能系統。
*3: 再生能源包括慣常水力(水庫式、調整池式、川流式,但不含抽蓄水力發電)、風力、太陽光電、生質能、汽電共生(垃圾、沼氣)及地熱等,其中垃圾、沼氣之尖峰保證容量計入淨尖峰能力。
*4: 汽電共生(煤、油、氣)為汽電共生業者設置之火力發電機組。
凯发体育app *5: 三座核電廠之6部氣渦輪機,為核能電廠全黑起動氣渦輪機,裝置容量不計入凯发体育app系統,後因電源不足時期,將其淨尖峰能力納入,但需遵守緊急起動規定及一年運轉時數之限制。

4.淨尖峰能力之考量與定義

gejizujingjianfengnengliyuzhuangzhirongliangbutong,zhuangzhirongliangxizhijizuzhishejirongliang,weizaijizushijifadianshi,xuyingfugezhongfuji、huanbaosheshidengzhichangneiyongdian,jigezhongxianzhitiaojianjianshaochulihoushengyuzhifadianrongliangfangweijingjianfengnengli,shigubutongxingshifadianjizuqizhuangzhirongliangyujingjianfengnengli,yijizutexingyuxianzhitiaojianzhibutong,cunzaibutongzhichayi。

jingjianfengnenglizhijisuanshangxukaolianggefadianjizuwujianfengyongdianshiqisuonengtigongzhikekaochuli。

凯发体育app●huolijihenengfadianjizuyouwuchuliwending,jianfengshiqikejinxingmanzaifadian,yinciyizhuangzhirongliangjianquchangyongdian,kouchujizulaohuajigezhongxianzhitiaojiansuojianshaozhichulihoujirujingjianfengnengli。

●chouxufadianshuchunengxitong,xuqitafadianjizu,zaimeirilifengshijiangchouxudianchangxiachideshuichouwangshangchi,yiweinengfangshijinxingchucun,ranchucunzhinengliangduoguaqujuewushangxiachizhidaxiaojigaoducha,yiquannianmeirijianfeng6xiaoshifadian,pingjunchulilishi85%zhichulijisuan。

●zaishengnengyuanfangmian,chuanliushishuiliyouwukequantianhoufadian,yincicaiquannianmeiri24xiaoshifadian,pingjunchulilishi85%zhichulijirujingjianfengnengli;diaozhengchishiyushuikushishuilikaoliangfangshizeyuchouxushileisi,caitianranliuliangjingdiaojiehoujizhong6xiaoshifadian,pingjunchulilishi85%zhichulijirujingjianfengnengli;fenglifadianyouwufengliangnanyiyugu,yincicaiquannianmeiri24xiaoshifadian,pingjunchulilishi85%zhichulijirujingjianfengnengli;taiyangguangdianyouwuqifadianchuliyuyongdianqingxingchengzhengxiangguan,yincicaiquannianmeiri10shizhi17shifadian,pingjunchulilishi85%zhichulijirujingjianfengnengli。

綜上,各類型發電方式之淨尖峰能力定義如下:
(1) 火力發電淨尖峰能力=燃煤、燃油及燃氣發電機組之裝置容量-廠用電-機組老化-各種限制條件所減少之出力。
(2) 核能發電淨尖峰能力=核能發電機組之裝置容量-廠用電-機組老化-各種限制條件所減少之出力。
(3) 抽蓄水力淨尖峰能力=全年每日尖峰6小時發電,85%時間之可靠出力(約裝置容量×92%)。
(4) 再生能源淨尖峰能力
= 川流式水力淨尖峰能力:採全年每日24小時發電,平均出力歷時85%之出力。(約裝置容量×40%)
+調整池式與水庫式水力淨尖峰能力:採天然流量經調節後集中6小時發電,平均出力歷時85%之出力(約裝置容量×87%)
+風力發電採全年每日24小時發電,平均出力歷時85%之出力。(約裝置容量×6%)
+太陽光電採全年每日10時至17時發電,平均出力歷時85%之出力。(約裝置容量×20%)
+地熱配合地熱田之熱量產能扣除廠內用電約20%。(約裝置容量×80%)
+生質能發電裝置容量×50%
+汽電共生(垃圾及沼氣)之尖峰保證容量
(5) 汽電共生(煤、油、氣)淨尖峰能力=汽電共生(煤、油、氣)之尖峰保證容量
(6) 核能電廠全黑起動氣渦輪機之淨尖峰能力=機組裝置容量-廠用電

備用容量率目標值

muqianzhengfuhezhunzhihelibeiyongronglianglvmubiaozhiwei15%,weilaishidangbeiyongronglianglvjiangyoujingjibudianlikekaodushenyihuijiantaodingding,bingjingdianyeguanzhijiguan(jingjibunengyuanju)gonggaoxiuzheng。

凯发体育app系統與全國發電系統之比較

全國發電裝置容量

yinengyuanjuchubanzhi104niannengyuantongjishoucezhongdi81yesuokanzai,104nianquanguofadianzhuangzhirongliangwei48,703.2mw,yiji4,870.32wanqian。

凯发体育app系統

凯发体育appmuqiankaifatiyuappxitongbaokuobengongsiziyouzhidianyuan、yiju「qidiangongshengxitongshishibanfa」dunshoudianliyubengongsizhiqidiangongshengbufen、yijiyubengongsiqiandinggoushoudianheyuezhiminyingdianchang(ipp)dengsanzhonglaiyuan。kaoliangchuantongqidiangongshengxitongxiyezhejiangzhichengwaizhiyudiandunshouyubengongsi,wufajieshoubengongsizhidianlidiaodu,guqizhuangzhirongliangbujirukaifatiyuappxitongzhuangzhirongliang,dankaoliangqiyudiandunshoubufenduitishengkaifatiyuappxitongzhengtigongdiannengliyoubangzhu,gurengjiangqidiangongshengxitongde「jianfengbaozhengrongliang」jirukaifatiyuappxitongde「jingjianfenggongdiannengli」zhong。qidiangongshengzhong,shuzaishengnengyuanzhilaji、zhaoqideng,xijiangshengchanzhidianliquanshudunshougeikaifatiyuappgongsi,qizhuangzhirongliangjirukaifatiyuappxitongzhong。yiminguo104niandiweiliruxiatu,quanguoxitongzongzhuangzhirongliangyue4,870.3wanqian,kaifatiyuappxitong4,103.7wanqian,zhijiandechajuzhuyaoweiminjianzifaziyongzhiqidiangongsheng。

補充說明:凯发体育app公司太陽光電與風力淨尖峰能力轉換係數

長期規劃的說明

凯发体育appkaifatiyuappgongsitaiyangguangdianjingjianfengnenglizhuanhuanxishu20%yufenglifadianjingjianfengnenglizhuanhuanxishu6%,xiyintaiyangguangdianyufenglifadianwei「jianxiexingnengyuanfadianmoshi」,yijuguoquziliaoquqiwutedingshiduanchixu85%shijianneizhikekaochuli,jiru「xitongjingjianfengnengli」。shangshutaiyangguangdianjifenglizhijingjianfengnengligujixiyongwugusuanchangqidianyuanguihuadexitongjingjianfengnengli,juyituiguqitadianyuanzhikaifaxuqiu。muqianbengongsiweiyinyingweilaidaliangzaishengnengyuanbingwang,youguantaiyangguangdianjifenglifadianjingjianfengnenglijiangwuweilaisoujigengduodetongjiziliaohoujinxingjiantao。

日前(Day-ahead)估計的說明

youguanpinggujisuanbeizhuanrongliangzhixitongyunzhuanjingjianfenggongdiannengli,xiyijizujingjianfenggongdiannengliguihuazhiweijizhun,zaikaolvjizugexiangshebeizhuangkuangjiyunzhuanxianzhierdamianxiangpinggujieguoerding。xitongwushijiyunzhuandiaoduzhiqianyiri,huipinggucirifadianjizuyunzhuanjingjianfengnengli。taiyangguangdianyufenglijizuzhijingjianfenggongdiannenglifeigudingzhi,xiyijuzhongyangqixiangjumeirisuogongbuweilaiyizhouqixiangyubaoziliaojiguoqu2zhouxiangtongriqipingjunshijizhi,zuoweijingjianfenggongdiannengliyuguzhi。

風力發電、太陽光電出力由於不同時間、地點,受氣候變化影響極大,例如2014年西班牙半島電力系統裝置容量為102GW,光電占4.3%,而最高尖峰負載發生於2月4日晚上8點為38.7GW,光電淨尖峰能力接近於0%,因此國際間再生能源淨尖峰能力估算差異極大。
(資料來源:ELECTRICA DE ESPANA, RED)

補充說明:再生能源淨尖峰因子的設定邏輯

長期規劃的說明

kaifatiyuappgongsikaoliangfengli、taiyangguangdianjichuanliushuilixifensangedizhifensanxingdianchang,dangqizongzhuangzhirongliangdamouyiguimoyishangshi,huoduohuoshaoketigongyixiaobufenwendingdedianli。fenglijichuanliushuilifadian,yinbushoubaitianhuowanshangyingxiang,zhiyaofenglai、youshuijikefadian,yincibizhaoquanniankeyonglv85%duiyingzhikekaochulishiwei「jingjianfengnengli」,qizhongfenglijiru「jingjianfengnengli」degongdiannengliweiqizhuangzhirongliangde6%。

taiyangguangdianzeyinqifadianfangshiwei「richuerzuo、riruerxi」,qifadianchuliyuyongdianfuzaichengzhengxiangguan,taiyangguangdianzeanquannianmeiri10diandao17dianqijian,85%yishangshijianketigongzhikekaochulijiru「jingjianfengnengli」,gaishueyueweiqizhuangzhirongliangde20%。shangshufenglijitaiyangguangdianzhijingjianfengnengligujixiyongwugusuanchangqidianyuanguihuadexitongjingjianfengnengli,juyituiguqitadianyuanzhikaifaxuqiu。

日前(Day-ahead)估計的說明

pinggujisuanbeizhuanrongliangzhixitongyunzhuanjingjianfengnengli,xiyijizujingjianfenggongdiannengliguihuazhiweijizhun,zaikaolvjizugexiangshebeizhuangkuangjiyunzhuanxianzhierdamianxiangpinggujieguoerding。xitongwushijiyunzhuandiaoduzhiqianyiri,huipinggucirifadianjizuyunzhuanjingjianfengnengli。taiyangguangdianyufenglijizuzhijingjianfenggongdiannenglifeigudingzhi,xiyijuzhongyangqixiangjumeirisuogongbuweilaiyizhouqixiangyubaoziliaojiguoqu2zhouxiangtongriqipingjunshijizhi,zuoweijingjianfenggongdiannengliyuguzhi。